In this episode, Senior Fellow in Defense Studies Peter Garretson interviews Jean-Jacques Tortora, Director of the European Space Policy Institute in Vienna. They talk about European space policy, the organization and roles of the European Space Agency (ESA), European Commission (EC), NATO, and member states. They discuss changes in how Europe is thinking about the security dimension of space. They also cover European perspectives on natural and man-made threats (Near Earth Objects, Solar Flares, Debris, Congested Traffic, ASATs), and a vision for global governance in space. They discuss the Russian ASAT test, change in NATO posture, French Defense Space Strategy, China & Russia's International Lunar Research Station, the Artemis program, Artemis Accords, a vision for space commerce, and opportunities for U.S.-European space cooperation.
EU Space Policy Web Page:
European Space Strategy:
NATO: Space as an Operational Domain
NATO’s Overarching Space Policy :"Such attacks could lead to the invocation of Article 5. A decision as to when such attacks would lead to the invocation of Article 5 would be taken by the North Atlantic Council on a case-by-case basis"