Oil-rich Azerbaijan is undergoing a major process of top-down modernization. Here’s why the reforms are happening now—and why Washington should take an interest.
- President Tokayev seeks to "maintain continuity" yet nonetheless calls for "systemic reforms." He appears to mean both.
- In the effort to engage society more deeply in governance, Kazakhstan will institute and seek to manage reforms from above.
- In continuing the principle of balance in its foreign policy, which Tokayev invented two decades ago, Kazakhstan will seek increased engagement and investment from the West.
President Trump and his isolationist backers may think otherwise, but there is no real alternative to continued involvement.
In August of 2008, Russia used separatist proxies in South Ossetia to attack Georgian villages near the city of Tskhinvali.
As Central Asians seek to design structures of cooperation that fit their needs, they should certainly build on the achievements of the late 1990s.