In August of 2008, Russia used separatist proxies in South Ossetia to attack Georgian villages near the city of Tskhinvali.
As Central Asians seek to design structures of cooperation that fit their needs, they should certainly build on the achievements of the late 1990s. But an overview of other global efforts at regional cooperation is also instructive.
Getting to better relations with Turkey will not be easy. But it’s far from impossible.