One of the main tools of Russian influence across Central Asia remains poorly understood.
After centuries of being played against one another, the Central Asian states have linked arms to advance their common welfare.
Oil-rich Azerbaijan is undergoing a major process of top-down modernization. Here’s why the reforms are happening now—and why Washington should take an interest.
- President Tokayev seeks to "maintain continuity" yet nonetheless calls for "systemic reforms." He appears to mean both.
- In the effort to engage society more deeply in governance, Kazakhstan will institute and seek to manage reforms from above.
- In continuing the principle of balance in its foreign policy, which Tokayev invented two decades ago, Kazakhstan will seek increased engagement and investment from the West.
President Trump and his isolationist backers may think otherwise, but there is no real alternative to continued involvement.